INTERNATIONALIZATION AND INNOVATION IN TOURISM
Allan M. Williams
University of Surrey, UK
Gareth ShawUniversity of Exeter, UK
Internationalization and innovation are signiﬁcant themes in tourism research whose inter-relationship has been largely neglected.
Starting from the international economi literature, which focuses mainly on the multinational enterprise, and on knowledge issues, the relationship can be conceptualised in three ways:
internationalization is a form of innovation, successful internationalization requires innovation, and internationalization requires ﬁrms to have superior knowledge.
Turning from this generic literature to the speciﬁcities of tourism, two aspects of the simultaneity of production and consumption critically shape internationalization: the requirement for co-presence, and consumer mobility.
However, a ﬁrmfocussed approach fails to address the changing international environment of the enterprise, especially the increasing importance of global connectivity in relation to entrepreneurs, labour and tourists.
Keywords: innovation, internationalization, Entrepreneurship, labour, tourists.